“ Travel makes one modest. You see what a tiny place you occupy in the world.” – Gustave Flaubert.

The Devil's tooth and toothpick. (Source: James Seymour)
The Devil’s tooth and toothpick. (Source: James Seymour)

Introduction to Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert, is regarded as one of the most important proponents of the concept of literary realism. This is a belief that authors should attempt to describe issues as they are or as realistically as possible. He was a French novelist that lived over the period of 1821 to 1880.

key works

  • Firstly, Rêve d’enfer (1837);
  • Secondly, Memoirs of a Madman (1838);
  • Also, Madame Bovary (1857);
  • Salammbô (1862);
  • Sentimental Education (1869);
  • Le Candidat (1874);
  • The Temptation of Saint Anthony (1874);
  • Three Tales (1877);
  • Le Château des cœurs (1880);
  • Bouvard et Pécuchet (1881);
  • Dictionary of Received Ideas (1911); and
  • Finally, Souvenirs, notes et pensées intimes (1965).


The Drakensberg is the most significant escarpment or mountain range in Southern Africa. It was almost declared a World Heritage site on a third count as it is one of the world’s best examples of an erosional mountain. Moreover, the Drakensberg is an escarpment. It borders the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho and three South African provinces namely, parts of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, and Mpumalanga. It stretches for some one thousand kilometres. The most extensive section of more than 300 km can be found in KwaZulu-Natal. The highest peaks in Southern Africa are found in the Drakensberg, For example the highest peak is Thabana Ntlenyana in Lesotho. This peak rises to 3,482 metres. The highest peak in South Africa is Mafadi at 3,450 metres.

The Origins of the drakensberg

A volcanic plume under southern Gondwanaland caused bulging of the continental crust in the area that would later become southern Africa, some 180 million years ago, Rift valleys formed on either side of the central bulge approximately 20 million years ago. These became flooded to become the proto-Atlantic and proto-Indian oceans. The stepped and steep walls of these rift valleys formed escarpments. These surrounded the newly formed Southern African subcontinent. Southern Africa then became tectonically quiet. Earthquakes seldom occur.


San Rock Art preservation

San Rock Art
Eland’s Cave (Photo: James Seymour)

The San were one of the last Late Stone Age people to live in South Africa. They were hunters and gatherers, who had a keen ability to live sustainably from their natural environment. The debate continues regarding the San’s exact origin. But, they, together with a pastoral people, the Khoikhoi herders, were the earliest modern human groups to live in South Africa. They were living in South Africa thousands of years before the arrival of the peoples from Central Africa. Finally the colonialists from Europe. One of the most significant areas where small bands of San lived were the Drakensberg mountains.

the demise of the san in the drakensberg

Two attempts affected the survival of the San in the Drakensberg. Firstly, in skirmishes with the Iron age Nguni peoples. Finally, the Europeans. Large numbers left the Drakensberg and South Africa as a result . The San have existed in the Drakensberg up until the early 1900s. A fresh bow and quiver were found on a high ledge in Eland Cane in 1930.  Another explanation for their disappearance is that they integrated with the surrounding Nguni tribes.


Traces of Bushman genes were found in 1931 when three old graves were excavated in Gabar’s grave and taken to Wits University for further examination. The bones were found to be an admixture of Bushman and Nguni and showed signs of cannibalism. The San continue to exist in the Kalahari Desert of Namibia. In the 1950s, several thousand San people were still hunting large game with poisoned arrows and gathering plant food in this area. One group, the IKung, lived in an area called Nyae Nyae (pronounced ny ny, rhyming with high), near the border between Namibia and Botswana.

san rock art

The San were masters of artistic expression on rock faces. Art critics have revered their ability to express human animation, their religious and day-to-day activities, and nature through art. The Drakensberg mountains have the largest concentration of this art. Over 30,000 examples exist in rock caves and overhangs in this region. The public generally cannot view this art. There are some important areas, where it is possible to see the paintings of these maestros, good examples being Main Cave, in the
Giants Castle Camp and through a daily guided hike to Battle Cave in the Injasuti Camp area.

preservation of this rock art

This arduous task has largely been taken on by a group of volunteers the KZN Wildlife’s Honorary Officers. They try to assist the under-staffed Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, the nature conservation agency of the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and Amafa AkwaZulu Natalithe cultural conservation agency.

The meticulously monitor the state of San Rock art sites in the Drakensberg as one of their tasks. This includes removing man-made obstacles and litter from these sites.  Please watch the video, “In the steps of the San”, on YouTube.


  • only visit AMAFA registered open sites;
  • visits need to be with the approval of the custodian of the site. Custodians are the landowners or other appointed bodies (e.g. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife) who have a responsibility of maintaining the integrity of the site.
  • an AMAFA registered guide must .accompany visitors to such sites, and
  • no more than 8 people may enter the site at a time

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Drakensberg activities


The Drakensberg, particularly the Central Drakensberg, has seen some exciting new tourism developments, that ensures that the phrase, “The Drakensberg: So much to do… so little time to do it” is apt. These together with the existing attractions and services of this area, the Northern and Central Drakensberg and surrounding Battlefields and other tourism areas, offer a particularly distinctive
experience for leisure groups, conferences, incentive programmes and the
individual domestic and international tourist.

Specific developments and Drakensberg activities

These developments include the Cathedral Peak Wine Estate, an estate that established in 2008. This exquisite venue which, offers an excellent wine tasting experience only did its first wine pressing some three years ago. Its Pinotage then proceeded to secure a gold award in 2016 and 2017 at the
Stellenbosch Wine Show.

In addition to this beautiful wine estate, the Cathkin Valley now has its own micro-brewery – The Drakensberg Brewery, which is producing a range of exceptional beer types ranging from red Ales, Blonde Ales, Indian Pale Ale, Pilsners and Stout. This brewery, which is open for light lunches and tasting, is a must-visit. Children will love watching the occasional glider, landing at the airstrip where this brewery is based.

Also, to these Drakensberg activities, the Valley is becoming increasingly popular for mountain bikers and trail runners. The community of this area has seen the potential of those sporting pursuits and as a result, established has an extensive mountain biking and trail running trails.

It is also essential to be aware of the fact that the Central Drakensberg has its a walking club, which meets for day hikes every Tuesday.

This Valley also offers a Park Run, a 5km experience from the Waffle Hut near Winterton. Guests are welcome to join this community spirit and engage with locals over waffles and coffee on Saturday morning. The run starts at 08h00.

Special attractions

There are also some precious hidden ‘gems’ in the Valley, which are extraordinary attractions:

Sandra se Winkel Museum on the way to Ardmore Guest Farm is a fascinating trip into the past of frontier life of the Drakensberg. It is a genuine trading store from a by-gone era, and many of the goods in the museum are still in their original packaging.

The Valley continues to offer some exciting must-do activities, including:

“The Drakensberg: so much to do, so little time to do it.”


The Journey Begins, Walton

Good company in a journey makes the way seem shorter”. — Izaak Walton

Izaak Walton


Walton, an English author, who was born in 1593. He passed away on the 15 December 1683. The “Compleat Angler” was his best-known work. Additionally, he was known for short biographies. These have been conglomerated into a compendium “Walton’s Lives”.

His statement ” “Good company in a journey makes the way seem shorter” is so apt for the Central and Northern Drakensberg, an area renowned for group outdoor pursuits. Some good examples being:

  • Firstly, hiking. There are many trails in the Central and Northern Drakensberg. Some are day hikes. Others are multi-day experiences;
  • Secondly, White river rafting;
  • Also, hot air ballooning;
  • Gliding;
  • Mountaineering. The Champagne Valley has a dedicated circuit of some 20 km;
  • Battlefield tours;
  • Tours to San rock art sites;
  • Moreover, helicopter flips;
  • Mountain Biking;
  • Abseiling;
  • Visits to lifestyle centres such as “Berg Air” and “Thokozisa”;
  • Additionally, Scootours;
  • Zip-lining;
  • Trail running. The Champagne Valley has a dedicated circuit of some 20 km;
  • Time trials;
  • Furthermore, horse riding;
  • Paintball;
  • Bird watching;
  • Game drives;
  • Golf at Champagne Sports, Monks Cowl and Cathedral Peak;
  • Bowls at the Nest Hotel;
  • Tennis at various resorts;
  • A year-round calendar of events;
  • Drakensberg Boys Choir concerts;
  • Park runs….and so much more,

The journey of experiences certainly begins in the Central and Northern Drakensberg. This is an epi-centre for adventure tourism in Southern Africa.

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